Vision impairment describes a reduced ability to see that cannot be corrected through conventional means, like glasses or contact lenses, to achieve 20/20 acuity or “normal” vision. It is a broad term that encompasses a range of visual limitations, from mild vision loss to near blindness. It is crucial to differentiate vision impairment from total blindness, as those with a vision impairment retain some level of sight, though it may be significantly compromised.
The information presented within this glossary entry is aimed at website owners seeking to learn the ropes of web accessibility. Technical elements are described in layman’s terms, and, as a rule, all topics pertaining to the legalities of web accessibility are presented in as simplified a manner as possible. This guide has no legal bearing, and cannot be relied on in the case of litigation.
The most common forms of vision impairment
The most common forms of vision impairment include, but aren’t limited to:
- Myopia (nearsightedness): Difficulty seeing distant objects clearly, due to the eyeball being illongated
- Hyperopia (farsightedness): Difficulty seeing close objects clearly, typically because the eyeball is too short front to back
- Astigmatism: Blurred vision resulting from an irregularly shaped cornea or lens
- Color blindness (color vision deficiency): Difficulty distinguishing between certain colors, often due to genetic factors, affecting the way certain wavelengths of light are perceived by the retina
- Presbyopia: Age-related difficulty in reading or seeing at close range, caused by the lens becoming less flexible over time
- Cataracts: Clouding of the lens, often age-related or due to injury
- Macular degeneration: Damage to the central portion of the retina, often age-related or genetic
- Glaucoma: Damage to the optic nerve, often from increased intraocular pressure, can be due to age, genetics, or injury
- Diabetic retinopathy: Retinal damage due to complications from diabetes
Living with a vision impairment
For those with vision impairments, daily life presents unique challenges. Activities like reading, driving, or recognizing faces is more difficult. The degree of challenge often correlates with the severity of the impairment. Engaging with online and digital environments can also be challenging. Websites or apps that aren't designed with accessibility in mind can be nearly impossible to navigate. Small fonts, poor color contrast, and non-responsive designs can make digital content inaccessible. Beyond the physical limitations, emotional and psychological hurdles, including feelings of isolation or dependence, can arise, impacting overall well-being.
Preventing vision impairments and the importance of early intervention
Taking steps to prevent vision impairment is essential for maintaining eye health. Regular eye examinations are a proactive measure that can identify potential issues at their onset. Detecting these issues early on paves the way for timely interventions, which can significantly slow down or even halt the progression of certain eye conditions. Moreover, for individuals who are already navigating the challenges of vision impairments, early interventions for newly developing issues become even more critical. Solutions such as corrective lenses, surgery, or other treatments can be employed to help preserve and optimize remaining vision, ensuring one can continue to experience the world with the best possible visual clarity.
Tools and adaptations to assist people with vision impairments
For individuals with vision impairments, physical tasks and navigation can present unique challenges. A range of tools and adaptations have been developed to assist those with vision impairments. Magnifying devices can enlarge text and images, making them easier to see. Large-print books can help those who find standard print too small to read comfortably. Tactile solutions, like braille, allow for reading through touch, while textured markers can guide individuals safely in various environments, such as public transit stations or buildings. These tools aim to ensure that people with vision impairments can navigate the physical world with greater ease and independence.
Legal protections for people with vision impairments in physical locations
Several laws have been enacted globally to protect the rights of people with vision impairments in various contexts, including physical locations and employment. Prominent legislation includes:
- The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): In the U.S., the ADA prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in all areas of public life, including jobs, schools, transportation, and all public and private places open to the general public. This means that businesses, employers, and public facilities must provide reasonable accommodations to ensure accessibility for individuals with vision impairments
- The Canadian Human Rights Act (CHRA): In Canada, the CHRA ensures equal opportunity and freedom from discrimination for those with disabilities, including vision impairments. Employers and service providers under federal jurisdiction are required to ensure that their environments are accessible
- The Equality Act 2010: In the UK, the Equality Act protects people with disabilities, including those with vision impairments, from discrimination in the workplace and in wider society. It mandates reasonable adjustments in the workplace and public places to ensure equal access for all
Web and digital accessibility for people with vision impairments
Engaging with digital content can be a significant hurdle for those with vision impairments. Websites that aren't designed with accessibility in mind can be challenging, if not impossible, to navigate. Small fonts, poor color contrast, non-responsive designs, and inaccessible digital assets, such as PDFs, can make digital content unusable. However, tools like screen readers convert text into synthesized speech, enabling users to "hear" website content. Many digital platforms and software now incorporate accessibility features, such as high-contrast modes, font adjustment settings, and voice commands. With the right tools and design considerations, digital spaces can be made more accessible, ensuring that those with vision impairments can experience online content just as fully as anyone else.
WCAG's role in ensuring web accessibility for people with vision impairments
The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), is a cornerstone in promoting digital inclusivity for all within web-based environments. While WCAG addresses accessibility needs across various disabilities, it has specific sections tailored for individuals with vision impairments. These sections mandate text descriptions for images, ensuring that those using assistive technologies such as screen readers can understand visual content. They also emphasize the importance of keyboard-only navigation, which is crucial for those who find mouse-based navigation impossible due to visual limitations. Furthermore, the guidelines advocate for content that can be easily magnified or presented in high-contrast modes, accommodating users who require enhanced visual settings.
Legislation enacted to protect people with vision impairments within digital environments
Several laws have been enacted to protect people with disabilities, including those with vision impairments, that rely on WCAG as their standard for compliance. These include:
- Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act: This U.S. law applies to government bodies, federally funded organizations, and service providers, and mandates that such entities make their information and communication (ICT) products, that include websites and web-based applications, conformant with WCAG standards
- The Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA): This Canadian law explicitly requires organizations in Ontario to make their web content accessible, following WCAG. The law applies to both the public and private sectors, ensuring that all Ontarians can access digital content without barriers
Additionally, while the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) doesn't explicitly mention online accessibility, many U.S. courts have interpreted its provisions to apply to websites and online platforms. In numerous cases, the courts have referenced WCAG as the standard for determining whether a website is accessible, emphasizing the importance of businesses and public accommodations ensuring their digital platforms are accessible.
Organizations and advocacy groups for vision impairment support
Promoting understanding and support for vision impairments and those who have them is essential. Numerous organizations advocate for the rights and needs of the vision-impaired community, offering resources, guidance, and a sense of belonging. Among them are:
- The American Council of the Blind (ACB): A membership organization of people who are blind or have a vision impairment that offers information, resources, audio description services and community activities.
- The American Foundation for the Blind (AFB): A leading organization that provides resources, research, and advocacy for individuals with vision impairments
- The National Federation of the Blind (NFB): Known for its public awareness campaigns and advocacy efforts, the NFB also offers scholarships, publications, and support for those with vision impairments
- Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB): A prominent Canadian organization that offers a range of services, including rehabilitation therapy, emotional support, and resources for those with vision loss
- The Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB): A UK-based organization that offers a wide range of services, including a helpline, reading services, and products designed for those with vision impairments
- Vision Australia: Serving the Australian community, this organization provides services like adaptive technology training, employment assistance, and children's services
Through the efforts of these organizations and many others, along with education, advocacy, and community support, society can become more inclusive and accommodating for those with vision impairments.